Fogo (Cape Verde): (19 Dec) It seems that after a short period of quietening down (9-14 December) the Fogo eruption has regained its strength. This confirms our earlier report of increased emission of sulphur dioxide thought to indicate the rise of a new magma batch.
After nearly 20 years of inactivity, the Pico de Fogo awakened with a violent flank eruption on the 23rd of November 2014. In less than 4 weeks , this eruption has devastated local communities and caused a humanitarian crisis as it forced 1500 local people to flee and it is likely that another 2000 will have to move to temporary shelters. Media coverage of this natural disaster has so far been remarkably small despite the fact that it is Fogo’s largest volcanic eruption in decades, causing more damage to nearby settlements, and in a shorter time, than the 1995 eruption.
Ash emissions from Gamalana Friday morning (Image @WorldVision / twitter)
Gamalama (Halmahera): (20 Dec) The volcano, one of the most active in the region, erupted unexpectedly last night (Thursday evening, 22:41 local time).
Unfortunately, it seems that the eruption claimed at least some victims: Several people (10-12 according to varying news reports) were on the volcano, a popular hiking destination, when the initial explosion occurred at night. At least two of them were reported missing, presumably killed, and several others wounded, mainly from injuries suffered when falling during their escape.
Explosions and ongoing ash emissions continued throughout Friday and produced ash plumes that drifted eastwards, caused ash fall at the Ternate airport which had to be shut down. More than 5 cm of ash covered the runway and some parked aircraft.
The Indonesian Volcanological Survey (VSI) raised the alert level of Gamalana to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). So far, no evacuation orders were given by authorities. The small island, only approx. 10 km in diameter, consists essentially of the volcano’s cone above sea level and is very exposed to mud flows or pyroclastic flows that could occur during or as a result of explosive activity. Evacuations would likely need to involve dislocation to one of the neighboring islands in case of a major eruption.
Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone lava flow continues to advance downslope toward the Pahoa Marketplace. This photo is of a small breakout from the edge of the inflated flow several hundred meters (yards) back from the active front. (HVO)
Kilauea (Hawai’i): Advancement of the flow continued at a slower rate, compared
to earlier in the week, and the flow moved about 120 meters (130 yards) in the past 24 hours, HVO reported.
“A southern branch of the flow on this map was stalled when mapped this morning. The more northerly advancing branch was 0.9 km (0.6 miles) away from the back of the Pahoa Marketplace, measured in a straight line. A HAWAII County Civil Defense overflight this afternoon observed about 40 yards advance
over the past 12 hours suggesting further slowing.
Steaming from the active lava dome of Shiveluch this morning (KVERT webcam)
Shiveluch (Kamchatka): A relatively large explosion and/or dome collapse event occurred yesterday evening (this morning in Kamchatka). An ash plume was reported to rise to 33,000 ft (10 km) altitude.
Webcam images are still dark at the time of the event (19:55 UTC).
Chirpoi (Kurile Islands, Russia): A thermal anomaly remains visible over Snow volcano (one of Chirpoi’s vents).
Medvezhia (Kurile Islands, Russia): The alert level (Aviation Color Code) was again lowered to green, because activity at Kudriavy, a stratovolcano of the Medvezhia volcanic complex, had not increased since 1 December.
Chirinkotan (Northern Kuriles): Thermal anomalies were detected in satellite images during 10-11 and 13-14 December, the latest Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report mentioned. Alert level remains yellow.
Steam plume from Aso’s Nakadake crater this morning
Aso (Kyushu): The strombolian eruption continues from Nakadake crater.
During a field survey on 10 December volcanologists observed 20-cm-wide blocks near the crater and 5-10-cm-wide blocks within 1.2 km SW of the crater. Plumes rose 600 m above the crater and incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim. During 12-15 December the plume rose 1 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported E in Hanoi Aso (Kumamoto Region). Incandescent material was occasionally ejected onto the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). (Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 10-16 December 2014)
Ontake-san (Honshu): White steam plumes were observed during the past week. JMA reports seismic activity remained low, but maintains alert level 3, as sudden phreatic explosions could occur again.
Mayon (Luzon Island): During 9-16 December, white plumes were occasionally observed rising from Mayon’s crater and drifted WNW and WSW, sometimes downslope.
Three volcanic earthquakes were recorded on 9 December and one was recorded on 11 December. Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale). PHIVOLCS reminded residents of the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank. (Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 10-16 December 2014)
Pyroclastic flow from SInabung around noon today (image: Beidar Sinabung @BeidarSinabung / twitter)
Sinabung (Sumatra, Indonesia): The volcano remains in a relatively active phase. The growing lava flow on the upper flank regularly sheds pyroclastic flows that reach up to 3 km distance.
Shishaldin (United States, Aleutian Islands): Mild eruptive activity probably continues in the summit crater of the stratovolcano.
AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated during 10-16 December. Nothing significant was observed in partly-to-mostly cloudy satellite and web camera images.
Steam plume from Popocatépetl this evening (CENAPRED webcam)
Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): The volcano’s activity remains similar as during the past months. SO2 emissions are elevated.
Multiple explosions on 16 December generated ash plumes that rose 1 km. An explosion at 0259 ejected incandescent material onto the NE flank, less than 200 m from the crater.
Villarrica (Central Chile): Increasing activity at the volcano was reported by the Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), suggesting that deep-seated strombolian activity has resumed in the summit crater.
“Satellite images of Villarrica acquired on 10 and 26 November and 3 December revealed a progressively more intense thermal anomaly. Photographs on 9 December showed particulates suspended above the crater rim, and the next day a thin veneer of ash covered the NW edge of the crater rim.
Detonations from the crater were heard during 10-12 December. On 13 December observers noted that the intense blasts of gas from the previous few days had removed some ash deposits from the inner crater wall leaving lighter colored streaks.” (Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 10-16 December 2014)
More at Volcano Discovery: Volcanic activity worldwide 20 Dec 2014: Shiveluch Volcano, Sinabung, Aso, Medvezhia, Popocatepetl, Gamalama volcano, Kilauea, Fogo